Basic Woven Designs – Introduction to Woven Fabrics

Welcome to Basic Woven Designs – Introduction to Woven Fabrics where you will learn the basics of successful engineering of cotton woven fabrics – basic weaving terminology, basic constructions, and loom types.

Learn the basics of successful engineering of cotton woven fabrics – basic weaving terminology, basic constructions, and loom types.

Basket Weave

A variation of the plain weave where two or more warp yarns weave as a plain weave. Example: 2 x 2 and 3 x 3 are regular basket weaves. 2 x 1 (Oxford) or 3 x 1 are irregular basket weaves.

Bedford Cord

A fabric that has cords or ribs formed by the weave running in the warp direction. Sometimes called a warp piqué.

Chevron

A weave pattern of pointed twill, creating a zigzag design. This weave is like the herringbone, but the pattern is not balanced like the herringbone.

Corduroy

A cut pile fabric that was woven with filling floats. The floats are then cut after weaving, allowing the filling yarns to stand up, creating vertical ribs or wales.

Dobby Fabrics

Fabric made on a dobby loom which allows weaves to be created using small geometric patterns.

Dobby Looms

A loom that uses a mechanical device called a dobby to control the movements of the harnesses. This loom is capable of producing small patterns and complex twills. Dobby looms can control up to 28 harnesses.

Herringbone

A broken twill weave that is composed of several right hand twills followed by several left hand twills.

Jacquard

Patterned fabric produced on a weaving loom. May be sectional or all over design in color and texture.

Left-hand Twill

A fabric with a twill line running from the lower right-hand side to the upper left-hand side of the fabric. Also called S twill.

Oxford Weave

A variation of a plain weave where two warp ends are weaving as one in a plain weave, over and under each pick. Typically, the yarn size of the filling yarn is at least twice the size of the warp yarn. One exception is the pinpoint Oxford, which uses warp and filling yarns of the same size.

Pique

A knitted construction that contains both knitted and tucked stitches. A simple piqué would alternate knitted and tucked stitches in odd feeds on a knitting machine with all knitted stitches on even feeds. This fabric is often referred to as single piqué or single cross-tuck. Other common single knit piqués are double cross-tuck and six-feed piqués.

Plain Weave

The simplest but most important of all weaves. Repeats on two ends and two picks. Each end weaves one pick up and one pick down and each adjacent end weaves opposite the other.

Pointed Twill

A weave containing right- and left-hand twills where the two twills come together to form a point.

Right-hand twill

A fabric with a twill line running from the lower left-hand side to the upper right-hand side of the fabric. Also called Z twill.

Sateen

A satin weave fabric containing some fiber other than silk.

Satin 5-Harness

A satin weave that uses five harnesses to weave the pattern. A total of five warp and five filling yarns make up a repeat.

Satin 8-Harness

A satin weave that uses five harnesses to weave the pattern. A total of five warp and five filling yarns make up a repeat.

Twill 2 x 1

This twill repeats on three ends and three picks.  The weave pattern for each warp end is warp yarn on top for two picks and under for one pick.

Twill 2 x 2

This twill repeats on four ends and four picks.  The weave pattern for each warp end is warp yarn on top for two picks and under for two picks.

Twill 3 x 1

This twill repeats on four ends and four picks.  The weave pattern for each warp end is warp yarn on top for three picks and under for one pick.

Velvet

Warp pile fabric with a woven cut pile, which is cut to a uniform height, giving it a very lush and soft hand. The pile on a velvet fabric is created in the warp. The high number of pile yarns per inch enhances the appearance and hand of the fabric.

Velveteen

Filling pile fabric with a woven cut pile, made to resemble a velvet fabric. The pile is created in the filling, and the use of many pile yarns per inch gives the fabric the appearance of having a uniform pile height. This fabric can have as many as 400 picks per inch, making it a very expensive cloth to produce.

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