Sourcing & Manufacturing

Independent Testing Laboratories

To support your product development process, Cotton Incorporated has compiled a list of potential independent testing laboratories.

Technical Guide

This technical guide on cotton for nonwovens covers agricultural production, cotton properties and preparation, and cotton morphology and chemistry.

Natural vs. Synthetic Fibers

Whether you work in agriculture, fashion or manufacturing, knowing cotton fiber is the right choice isn’t always enough. Get the science.

E-book: Classification & Tariff Engineering

Download the full e-book, Customs and International Trade Strategy: Classification & Tariff Engineering.

E-book: Free Trade Agreement Programs

Download the full e-book, Free Trade Agreement Programs.

Sourcing Cotton

Understand vital information about cotton, trade in cotton and production, and manufacturing practices that can affect cotton sourcing & traceability.

Cotton Fiber Development & Maturation

Cotton plant development occurs in specific stages of reproductive growth and cotton plant development must be optimized for ideal fiber production.

Cotton Fiber Harvesting & Ginning

The first step in cotton processing is harvesting, and, for the farmers, it’s an important and personal process.

Cotton Fiber Qualities & Evaluation

Learn about the combination of instrument evaluations and skilled cotton classer assessments used to determine cotton fiber properties.

Cotton Classification

The United States classes 100% of its cotton bales. Learn more about USDA cotton classification.

Engineered Fiber Selection® Software

Cotton buyers and sellers improve cotton logistics, evaluation, optimization, and profitability with the EFS® System Suite of software.

The Art of Dyeing

Learn about color, basic principles, fiber reactive dyes, direct dyes, vat dyes, sulfur dyes, and pigments.

Denim Manufacturing History

Learn about the history of denim manufacturing.

Dyeing Preparation

Learn about the dyeing process, including scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, and final steps.

Made in the USA: Knit Fabric Mills

Looking for your link in knit fabric? Here are a few options of knit cotton fabric mills in the USA.

Made in the USA: Woven Fabric Mills

Looking for your link in woven fabric? Here are a few options of woven cotton fabric mills in the USA.

Made in the USA: Yarn Spinners

Looking for your link in yarn spinning or dyeing? Here are a few options of cotton yarn spinners and dyers in the USA.

Made in the USA: Printers

Looking for your link in printing? Here are a few options for digital and conventional printers in the USA.

Marketing Resources

Discover why cotton is the right choice for various nonwoven markets and products.

Sourcing Directories

Connect with suppliers of various types of cotton fiber, nonwoven materials, or converted nonwoven products.

Webinars

Watch the recordings of recent webinars on the hypoallergenic properties of cotton and the baby care market.

The Art of Printing: Overview

Learn about “History”, “Preparation”, “Fiber”, “Yarn”, and “Fabric.”

Advances in Sustainable Dyeing

Discover new ways to reduce water, energy, and chemicals during the dyeing process.

Made in the USA: Dyers & Finishers

Looking for your link in dyeing and finishing? Here are a few options of commission dyers and finishers for cotton in the USA.

The Art of Sweater Manufacturing: Basics

Learn about “History and Evolution”, “Knitting Fundamentals”, and “Machinery”.

How Fiber Quality Impacts Your End Product

In this webinar, we will walk you through key aspects of choosing the right cotton fiber for your end product.

Denim Manufacturing: Yarn Processes

Learn about yarn numbering, yarn spinning systems, warping, dyeing, and slashing.

The Basics of Yarn Manufacturing: The Beginnings of Yarn

Learn about “History” and “Fiber Selection.”

The Basics of Yarn Manufacturing: Opening through Carding

Learn about “Opening”, “Cleaning”, “Batt Formation” and “Carding.”

The Basics of Yarn Manufacturing: Preparation

Learn about “Drawing”, “Combing”, and “Roving.”

The Basics of Yarn Manufacturing: Spinning Process

Learn about “Ring Spinning”, “Rotor Spinning”, “Air Jet Spinning”, “Yarn Numbering”, “Yarn Twist” and “Yarn Plying.”

Basic Woven Designs – Introduction to Woven Fabrics

Learn the basics of successful engineering of cotton woven fabrics – basic weaving terminology, basic constructions, and loom types.

Woven Basics

Learn about “Why Wovens are Unique”, and “Warping, Slashing, Drawing-in and Tying-in.”

Designing Wovens

Learn about “Defining the Product”, “Technical Design”, and “Design Implications.”

Basic Weaves

Learn about “Plain Weaves”, “Twill Weaves”, and “Satin Weaves.”

The Art of Sweater Manufacturing: Design Developments

Learn about “Construction”, “Color Consideration”, “Product Target”, and “Computer Aided Design".

The Art of Sweater Manufacturing: Manufacturing

Learn about “Cut and Sew”, “Panel Knitting”, “Full Fashion”, and “Knit to Wear Garment”.

The Art of Sweater Manufacturing: Dyeing and Finishing Processes

Learn about “Preparation”, “Dyeing”, “Finishing”, and “Steaming/Shaping Garment.”

The Art of Garment Manufacturing: History of Garment Manufacturing

Learn about the “History” of Garment Manufacturing.

The Art of Garment Manufacturing: Garment Components

Learn about “Thread”, “Closures, Zippers, Buttons, Etc.”, “Findings and Trim” and “Shaping Materials”.

The Art of Garment Manufacturing: Garment Construction

Learn about “Seams and Stitches Overview”, “T-Shirt Construction”, “Jean Construction” and “Dress-Shirt Construction”.

The Art of Garment Manufacturing: Markers, Spreading, and Cutting

Learn about “Pattern Engineering”, “Marker Making”, and “Cutting Methods”.

The Art of Garment Manufacturing: Quality Control

Learn about “Fabric Quality and Systems”, and “Inspection”.

Stretch and Growth

The attribute of fabric stretch has associated properties that are as important as the stretch characteristic itself. 

The Art of Sock Manufacturing: History of Sock Manufacturing

Learn about the “History” of Sock Manufacturing.

The Art of Sock Manufacturing: Sock Knitting Basics

Learn about “Overview”, “Machine Components”, “Knitting Cylinder”, “Knitting Needle Cycle (part 1 & 2)”, and “Machine Types (part 1-3)".

The Art of Shrinkage Control: Shrinkage Testing

Learn about “Shrinkage Testing.”

The Art of Shrinkage Control: Knit Fabric Shrinkage

Learn about “Fundamentals of Knit Fabric Shrinkage”, “Knitting Parameters”, “Dyeing and Finishing Parameters”, and “Chemical Finishing.”

The Art of Shrinkage Control: Shrinkage Basics

Learn about “Impact of Shrinkage”, “Shrinkage Defined”, “Types of Shrinkage”, and “Physics of Shrinkage.”

The Art of Quality Testing: Care and Appearance

Learn about “Appearance”, “Colorfastness”, “Lightfastness”, “Rating Procedures”, “Dimensional Stability”

The Art of Quality Testing: Durability

Learn about “Strength”, “Abrasion Resistance”, and “Pilling.” 

The Art of Quality Testing: Construction

Learn about “Fiber”, “Yarn”, and “Fabric.”

The Art of Quality Testing: Product Sampling and Conditioning

Learn about “Product Sampling and Conditioning”.

The Art of Printing: Fundamentals

Learn about Printing Fundamentals, from basics to afterwashing.

The Art of Printing: Printing

Learn about everything from Flat-Bed Screen Printing to Digital Ink Jet Printing.

The Art of Printing: Special Techniques

Learn about “Resist Printing”, “Discharge Printing”, and “Transfer Printing.”

Printing Technique Comparison

Explore the comparisons between rotary printing, cool transfer printing, and digital printing.

Knit Basics

Learn about “Why Knits are Unique” and “Weft & Warp.”

Designing Knits

Learn about “Defining the Product”, “Technical Design”, and “Fabric Construction.”

Single Knits

Learn about “The Knitting Machine”, “Needle Action”, and “Knit, Tuck & Float Stitches.”

Double Knits

Learn about “Two sets of Needles”, “Rib Gaiting” and “Interlock Gaiting.”

The Art of Sock Manufacturing: Sock Components

Learn about “Sock Overview”, “Welt Formation”, “Heel Pocket Formation”, “Cushioning”, “Reinforcement”, “Patterning”, and "Yarn For Socks".

The Art of Sock Manufacturing: Stitch Formations

Learn about “Stitch Counts” and “Types of Stitches”.

The Art of Sock Manufacturing: Dyeing and Finishing

Learn about “Overview”, “Rotary Drum Machines”, “Paddle Machines”, “Extraction”, “Continuous Scour and Bleach”, “Dyeing”, “Finishing”, and “Boarding".

The Art of Sock Manufacturing: Inspection and Packaging

Learn about “Inspection and Packaging”.

The Art of Sock Manufacturing: Testing

Learn about “Fit”, “Stretch”, “Abrasion Resistance”, “Pilling”, “Strength”, “Crocking”, “Lightfastness”, and "Colorfastness".

The Art of Finishing: Preparation

Learn about “Scouring”, “Bleaching”, “Mercerizing”, and “Final Steps.”

The Art of Finishing: Mechanical Finishing

Learn about “Drying”, “Compaction”, “Calendering”, and “Sanding, Napping, and Shearing.”

Denim Manufacturing: Weaving Processes

Learn about drawing-in and warp tying, yarn flow, and basic weaving motions.

The Art of Finishing: Chemical Finishing

Learn about “Softeners and Builders”, “Functional Chemistry”, and “Application Systems.”

Denim Manufacturing Basics

Learn about the process flow for denim manufacturing, typical denim construction, weaves, and weights, and non-conventional denim fabrics.

Denim Garment Finishing: Garment Construction

Learn about spreading, cutting, and sewing denim garments.

Denim Garment Finishing: Process Overview

Learn about the basic process and premium finish process of denim garment finishing.

Denim Garment Finishing History

Learn about the history of denim garment finishing.

Denim Garment Finishing: Finishing Machinery

Learn about denim garment finishing machinery, including rotary machines, extraction, tumble drying, and pressing.

Denim Garment Finishing: Wet Finishing

Learn about denim wet finishing, including desizing/washing, abrasive color loss, color discharge, and chemical finishing.

Denim Garment Finishing: Dry Finishing

Learn about denim dry finishing, including sanding, brushing, laser, whiskering, and special effects.

Made in the USA: Cut & Sew Manufacturers

Looking for your link in cut and sew manufacturing? Here are a few options of cut and sew manufacturers for cotton in the USA.

Sustainable Denim Processing

Brands and consumers are looking for more sustainable options without sacrificing the look and feel that consumers love about their favorite jeans.

Sourcing the Best Cotton Products: Understanding and Overcoming Skewing

Learn to improve the performance of your quality goods as textile expert Don Bailey delves into key textile techniques.

Sourcing the Best Cotton Products: Overcoming Shrinkage

Controlling shrinkage of textile and apparel products impacts the design and production planning in manufacturing or sourcing products.

Understanding & Overcoming Pilling

One of the most common complaints concerning product aesthetics and performance is that of pilling.

Cationic Cotton

Cationic cotton can transform your dyeing routine into an environmentally responsible and efficient process.

Consumers Speak: Apparel Changes that Impact Satisfaction

Join this webinar to learn how consumer reviews impact purchases and how apparel performance issues coupled with fabrication changes can adversely...

Basic Functions of the Weaving Loom

Learn about “Shedding”, “Filling Insertion”, “Beat-up” and “Warp Control.”

Advanced Quality Assurance: Performance & Stains

Oil and stain resistance are desirable attributes of fabrics—in the garments we wear to protect us, well, against ourselves!

Advanced Quality Assurance: Performance & Water

In the performance water chapter, testing is focused on the absorption of liquid and its movement on the surface of and/or through a fabric.