Woven Fabric Designs

 


 

Basket Weave

A basket weave is a variation of the plain weave where two or more warp yarns weave as a plain weave.

 

A basket weave is a derivative of the plain weave. The most common type of basket weave is the 2 x 2 basket. The repeat area is four ends by 4 picks. All ends weave in pairs, as do the picks. The illustration shows the 2 x 2 weave which gives a distinct checkerboard effect.

 

Regular or Balanced Weave

In basket weaves, if both warp and filling risers are equal then the weave is considered to be a regular or balanced weave. Other regular basket weaves are 3 x 3 and 4 x 4.

 

Irregular Basket Weave

All basket weaves are not regular. For example: 2 x 1 (Oxford weave), 3 x 2, 3 x 2 x 1 x 1, or 3 x 1.

 


 

Bedford Cord

The Bedford cord is a weave characterized by cord lines that run warp-wise in the cloth. It is sometimes called a warp piqué. The weave between the cords is usually plain weave. However, the weave of the cord can be plain or twill. There are several filling or weft floats on the back of the fabric causing the yarns to bunch and form the cords in the cloth. A stuffer yarn could be used when the cord effect needs to be more pronounced.

 


 

Chevron

Chevron is a 2 x 2 twill that is right-hand on the ends one through four and the weave reverses to a left-hand twill on ends five through eight. Notice that ends four and five form a point at the reversal.

 

Chevron is a weave pattern of pointed twill, creating a zigzag design. This weave is like the herringbone, but the pattern is not balanced like the herringbone.


Corduroy

Corduroy is a cut pile fabric that was woven with filling floats. The floats are then cut after weaving, allowing the filling yarns to stand up, creating vertical ribs or wales.


Dobby Fabrics

Dobby fabrics are woven on a dobby loom with a limited number of harnesses. Because the weave is limited by the number of harnesses, dobby designs are usually small and geometric. Dobby fabrics can be made entirely of yarns of the same color or type. The woven design of solid color dobbies becomes obvious as a result of varying light reflections of different areas of the weave, creating a textured look. Dobbies can also be yarn-dyed, in which the warp and filling are different colors, or where the warp or filling contains numerous colors which will add dimension to the weave.


Dobby Looms

A dobby loom is capable of producing complex twills, satins, small geometric figures, and pattern stripes. It uses an electronic or mechanical device called a dobby to control the movements of up to 28 harnesses.


Herringbone

Herringbone is a broken twill weave that is composed of several right-hand twills followed by several left-hand twills.

 

The graph shows that are 2 x 2 twill repeats on four ends and four picks. Each warp yarn rises over two picks and then sinks under two picks. The 2 x 2 twill is a balanced twill. A simple herringbone or pointed twill can be made by reversing the 2 x 2 twill from a right-hand twill to a left-hand twill. The graph now shows a herringbone twill. Warp ends number one through four weave as right-hand. On warp end five, the twill reverses the harnesses so that risers become sinkers and warp ends six through eight step in a left-hand twill direction. Notice that where the twill line reverses, the adjacent ends are in opposing positions of riser and sinker. Herringbone weaves are broken twill weaves composed of alternating left- and right-hand twill to produce the herringbone pattern. This can be accomplished on a dobby loom using straight draw or by using a herringbone draw on a cam loom to produce the same effect.


Jacquard

Jacquard is a patterned fabric produced on a weaving loom. May be sectional or all-over design in color and texture.

 

The jacquard head motion is the most complex shedding system. It is named after its inventor Joseph Marie Jacquard who developed the system in 1801 to be used on hand looms. The jacquard has advanced significantly since then but it still works on the same principle today. Jacquard shedding exhibits control on each individual warp yarn independent of all other warp yarns. Up to 12,000 warp ends can be controlled. These systems can employ mechanical or electronic devices to actuate the warp ends. Design capability is virtually unlimited. Pattern areas can equal the width of the fabric and are almost unlimited in the length. Fabrics made on jacquard looms are normally more expensive because of their complexity and slower weaving speed. There are no harness frames on this style of loom. Each end is activated independently, being controlled by its own harness cord from the jacquard head. The harness cord is attached to a heddle which is pulled down by a spring in most cases, but in some of the older and slower models, weights are used to pull the heddles down to achieve the pattern.


Oxford Weave

Oxford weave is a variation of a plain weave.  In this weave, two warp ends weave as one while each filling yarn weaves alone. Typically, the warp yarns are half the size of the filling yarn. One exception is the pinpoint Oxford, which uses warp and filling yarns of the same size.


Piqué

Piqué is a knitted construction that contains both knitted and tucked stitches. A simple piqué would alternate knitted and tucked stitches in odd feeds on a knitting machine with all knitted stitches on even feeds. This fabric is often referred to as single piqué or single cross-tuck. Other common single-knit piqués are double cross-tuck and six-feed piqués.

 

Piqué is weave characterized by cords that run width-wise or in the filling direction. The fabric requires at least three harnesses and repeats over the needed number of ends to create the desired width of the wale. Bedford cord has cords in the warp direction and piqué has cords in the weft direction.


Plain Weave

Plain weave is the simplest but most important of all weaves. Repeats on two ends and two picks. Each end weaves one pick up and one pick down and each adjacent end weaves opposite the other.


Sateen

Sateen is a satin weave fabric constructed of yarns other than silk.


Satin 5-Harness

A satin weave that uses five harnesses to weave the pattern. A total of five warp and five filling yarns make up a repeat.


Satin 8-Harness

A satin weave that uses eight harnesses to weave the pattern. A total of eight warp and eight filling yarns make up a repeat.


Twill 2×1

This twill repeats on three ends and three picks.  The weave pattern for each warp end is warp yarn on top for two picks and under for one pick.


Twill 2×2

This twill repeats on four ends and four picks.  The weave pattern for each warp end is warp yarn on top for two picks and under for two picks.


Twill 3×1

This twill repeats on four ends and four picks.  The weave pattern for each warp end is warp yarn on top for three picks and under for one pick.


Left-Hand Twill

Left-hand twill is a fabric with a twill line running from the lower right-hand side to the upper left-hand side of the fabric. Also called S twill.


Pointed Twill

Pointed twill is a weave containing right- and left-hand twills where the two twills come together to form a point.


Right-Hand Twill

Right-hand twill is a fabric with a twill line running from the lower left-hand side to the upper right-hand side of the fabric. Also called Z twill.


Velvet

Velvet is a warp pile fabric with a woven cut pile, which is cut to a uniform height, giving it a very lush and soft hand. The pile on a velvet fabric is created in the warp. The high number of pile yarns per inch enhances the appearance and hand of the fabric.


Velveteen

Velveteen is a filling pile fabric with a woven cut pile, made to resemble a velvet fabric. The pile is created in the filling, and the use of many pile yarns per inch gives the fabric the appearance of having a uniform pile height. This fabric can have as many as 400 picks per inch, making it a very expensive cloth to produce.