Twill Weaves

Appearance of Twill Weaves


Twill fabrics are characterized by diagonal lines (twill lines) on the face of the cloth formed by the floating (rising) of warp yarns over the filling yarns. The twill line is determined by the direction of the diagonal.

Right-Hand Twill (Z Twill)



If the twill line moves from the lower left to the upper right, the twill is a right-hand twill. This weave is also called a Z twill.

Left-Hand Twill (S Twill)



If the line moves from the lower right to the upper left, it is a left-hand twill. This weave is also called an S twill.

The angle of the twill is the result of the ratio of warp ends to filling picks. The comparative sizes of the warp and filling yarns will also affect the angle of the twill. Twill lines can be anywhere from 15–75 degrees. A 45-degree angle is considered a normal twill angle and anything higher is considered a steep twill and lower angles are reclining twills.


Twill weaves are designated by what is known as a counter. A counter of a twill designates the order of weaving of the first end of the repeat.

2 X 1 Twill



The 2 X 1 is the simplest twill. It repeats on three ends and three picks.

1 X 2 Twill



The opposite of a 2 X 1 twill is the 1 X 2 twill.

The 2 X 1 twill is a warp-faced twill and the 1 X 2 is a filling-faced twill. These are the same fabric, just opposite sides.


In twills, the first number represents the number of warp risers on the first warp end of the repeat. The second number is the number of warp sinkers following the risers on the same warp end.


The graph below represents a 2 X 1 right-hand twill:


Find the first warp yarn and follow the path of this yarn. There are two warp risers, followed by one warp sinker per repeat.

Follow the second warp yarn and you can see that the warp sinker is first, followed by two warp risers.

The final warp yarn in the repeat has a warp riser, a warp sinker, and another warp riser. The pattern is repeated in both vertical and horizontal directions.


TERMS TO KNOW (click to flip)

Basic Twill

A common twill (i.e., 2 x 1 and 3 x 1 twills) that can be produced on all types of…

view in glossary

The twill line runs from lower right-hand side to upper left-hand side of fabric. Also called left-hand twill.

view in glossary

Also called right-hand twill; the twill line runs from lower left-hand side to upper right­ hand side of the fabric.

view in glossary
2 x 1 Twill

A twill fabric that repeats on three warp ends and three filling picks. This warp faced twill has two warp…

view in glossary