Sourcing & Manufacturing

Basics of Yarn Manufacturing

Although the spinning of cotton yarn is said to have originated in India, Egypt claims to be the first to have explored these techniques.

Independent Testing Laboratories

Independent Testing Laboratories

To support your product development process, Cotton Incorporated has compiled a list of potential independent testing laboratories.

Natural vs. Synthetic Fibers

Natural vs. Synthetic Fibers

Whether you work in agriculture, fashion or manufacturing, knowing cotton fiber is the right choice isn’t always enough. Get the science.

Sourcing Cotton

Sourcing Cotton

Understand vital information about cotton, trade in cotton and production, and manufacturing practices that can affect cotton sourcing & traceability.

graphic image of person in suit and tie

E-Book: Classification & Tariff Engineering

Download the full e-book, Customs and International Trade Strategy: Classification & Tariff Engineering.

Free Trade Agreement Programs E-Book

E-Book: Free Trade Agreement Programs

Download the full e-book, Free Trade Agreement Programs.

computer screen in cotton manufacturing setting

Cotton Classification

The United States classes 100% of its cotton bales. Learn more about USDA cotton classification.

Cotton Fiber Development & Maturation

Cotton Fiber Development & Maturation

Cotton plant development occurs in specific stages of reproductive growth and cotton plant development must be optimized for ideal fiber production.

Cotton Havester

Cotton Fiber Harvesting & Ginning

The first step in cotton processing is harvesting, and, for the farmers, it’s an important and personal process.

man in suit standing in manufacturing machines and boxes

Cotton Fiber Qualities & Evaluation

Learn about the combination of instrument evaluations and skilled cotton classer assessments used to determine cotton fiber properties.

man reviewing paper with computer screen showing bar chart

Engineered Fiber Selection® Software

Cotton buyers and sellers improve cotton logistics, evaluation, optimization, and profitability with the EFS® System Suite of software.

History of Denim

History of Denim

From the origin of the word "jeans" to its revolution in the fashion industry to where it gets its color, learn more about the history of denim.

U.S. Knit Fabric Mills

Knit Cotton Fabric Mills

Made in the USA. Here are a few options for knit cotton fabric mills in the United States.

Dyeing Basics

Dyeing Basics

Dyes are highly colored substances that can be applied to a substrate to impart color with some degree of permanence.

U.S. Woven Fabric Mills

Woven Cotton Fabric Mills

Made in the USA. Here are a few options for woven cotton fabric mills in the United States.

U.S. Yarn Spinners

Cotton Yarn Spinners

Made in the USA. Here are a few options for cotton yarn spinners and dyers in the United States.

U.S. Printers

Cotton Printers

Made in the USA. Here are a few options for digital and conventional printers in the United States.

Dyeing Preparation

Dyeing Preparation

Proper preparation of cotton fibers, yarns, and fabrics to undergo dyeing is critical and can prevent issues that may occur later on.

Technical Guide

This technical guide on cotton for nonwovens covers agricultural production, cotton properties and preparation, and cotton morphology and chemistry.

Topic Thumbnail Image_Marketing Resources

Marketing Resources

Discover why cotton is the right choice for various nonwoven markets and products.

Topic Thumbnail Image_CottonPlant2

Sourcing Directories

Connect with suppliers of various types of cotton fiber, nonwoven materials, or converted nonwoven products.

Topic Thumbnail Image_Webinars


Watch the recordings of recent webinars on the hypoallergenic properties of cotton and the baby care market.

Printing Overview

Cotton Textile Printing

Learn about the history of textile printing and the impact that your choice of fiber, yarn, and fabric has on the final product.

U.S. Dyers & Finishers

Cotton Dyers & Finishers

Made in the USA. Here are a few options for commission dyers and finishers for cotton in the United States.

Advances in Sustainable Dyeing

Advances in Sustainable Dyeing

Discover new ways to reduce water, energy, and chemicals during the dyeing process.

Denim Manufacturing Basics

Denim Manufacturing Basics

Get a large view look at the process behind denim manufacturing—from weaves and weights to non-conventional denim fabrics.

Denim Manufacturing: Yarn Processes

Denim Yarn

How denim looks and feels depends greatly on its yarn. Size, twist, ring or open-end spinning—see how they all play a role in the final look.


How Fiber Quality Impacts Your End Product

In this webinar, we will walk you through key aspects of choosing the right cotton fiber for your end product.

Yarn Manufacturing: Cleaning & Carding

Yarn Spinning: Fiber Opening & Cleaning

Explore the first steps in yarn spinning: opening and cleaning.

Yarn Spinning Batt Formation & Carding

Yarn Spinning: Batt Formation & Fiber Carding

Explore the next steps in yarn spinning: batt formation and fiber carding.

Yarn Spinning: Fiber Preparation

Yarn Spinning: Fiber Preparation

Explore the final step in yarn spinning: fiber preparation.

Yarn Spinning Processes

Yarn Spinning Processes

Learn about the three different methods for spinning: ring spinning, rotor spinning, and air-jet spinning.

Yarn Numbering

Yarn Spinning: Numbering

Yarn numbering is a term used to describe a yarn’s physical size or, more specifically, its linear density.

Yarn Twist & Ply

Yarn Spinning: Yarn Twist & Ply

No matter the spinning system employed, all yarns contain twist to hold the fibers together.

Weaving Basics

Weaving Basics

Get a high-level look at the basics of weaving, including its history and the basic actions of interlacing yarn to form a woven textile.

Woven Fabric Designs

Woven Fabric Designs

Learn about basic weave constructions, from corduroy to herringbone to velvet, and more.

Designing Wovens

Designing Wovens

Take a look at what goes into designing woven textiles, from conception to creation, including technical design and design implications.

Types of Weaves

Types of Weaves

Learn about the four main categories of woven fabric: plain weaves, twill weaves, satin weaves, and specialty weaves,


Sweater Design

Learn about sweater design, including construction, color consideration, product target, and computer-aided design.


Sweater Manufacturing Basics

Learn about cut and sew, panel knitting, full fashion, and knit-to-wear garments.

Denim Weaving Process

Denim Weaving

When denim is placed on a loom, a number of elements and manufacturing decisions will determine the final look of the denim.

three beakers.jpg

Sweater Manufacturing: Dyeing & Finishing

Learn about dyeing, finishing, and steaming/shaping garments.


History of Garment Manufacturing

Learn about the history of garment manufacturing.

Denim Garment Construction: Spreading, Cutting, & Sewing

A lot goes into making a pair of jeans. First, the denim is spread and cut. Then, each piece must be sewn on, including belt loops and zippers.


Garment Components

Learn about thread, closures, zippers, buttons, findings, trim, and shaping materials.


Garment Construction

Learn about seams and stitches, t-shirt construction, jean construction, and dress-shirt construction.


Shrinkage Testing

Learn about shrinkage testing.


Knit Fabric Shrinkage

Learn about the fundamentals of knit fabric shrinkage including knitting parameters, dyeing and finishing parameters, and chemical finishing.

Denim Basic & Premium Finishing

Denim is a part of nearly everyone’s wardrobe. Simple or elaborate—fabric finishing is part of virtually every denim garment.


Shrinkage Basics

Learn about the basics of shrinkage.

Denim Finishing Machinery

Take a look at some of the machines used in denim finishing, including rotary machines, dryers, and presses.


Garment Markers, Spreading, & Cutting

Learn about pattern engineering, marker making, and cutting methods.


Quality Control

Learn about fabric quality and systems and inspection.

Denim Wet Finishing

Wet denim finishing uses washing techniques to alter a garment's appearance. From stonewashing to bleach to softeners—learn more about wet finishing.

Denim Dry Finishing

Dry finishing mimics what happens naturally to denim after regular wash and wear. From laser to whiskering to sanding—learn more about dry finishing.


History of Sock Manufacturing

Learn about the history of sock manufacturing.

Sustainable Denim Processing

Sustainable Denim Processing

Brands and consumers are looking for more sustainable options without sacrificing the look and feel that consumers love about their favorite jeans.

Printing Process

Printing Process

Explore the printing process from start to finish. Learn the basics of preparation, printing, drying, fixation, and afterwashing.

Printing Types

Types of Printing

Learn about the different types of printing: flatbed screen printing, rotary screen printing, engraved roller printing, and digital inkjet printing.

Sourcing the Best Cotton Products: Overcoming Shrinkage

Understanding & Overcoming Shrinkage

Controlling shrinkage of textile and apparel products impacts the design and production planning in manufacturing or sourcing products.

Sock Knitting Basics

Learn about sock knitting basics, including machine components, the knitting cylinder, the knitting needle cycle, and machine types.

Special Printing Techniques

Special Techniques in Printing

Learn about special printing techniques, including resist printing, discharge printing, and transfer printing.

Compraing Printing Techniques

Comparing Printing Techniques

Take a look at the key features, advantages, and disadvantages of rotary printing, cool transfer printing, and digital printing.


Quality Testing: Construction

Learn about quality testing: fiber, yarn, and fabric.

Knit Basics

Knit Basics

What are the basics of knitting? Learn more about its history and the two systems of knitting: weft knitting and warp knitting.


Quality Testing: Care & Appearance

Learn about quality testing: appearance, colorfastness, lightfastness, rating procedures, and dimensional stability.


Garment Durability: Strength

Learn about quality testing for strength and durability.

Abrasion Resistance

Garment Durability: Abrasion Resistance

Learn about quality testing for abrasion resistance.

Designing Knits

Designing Knits

Learn about designing knits, including defining the product, technical design, and fabric construction.

Sock Components

Learn about sock components, including welt formation, heel pocket formation, cushioning, reinforcement, patterning, and yarn for socks.

Single Knit

Single Knits

Let's take a look at how single knits are created—from the circular knitting machine to the action and parts of its needle to the stitches it makes.

Sock Stitch Formations

Learn about stitch counts and types of stitches.

Sock Dyeing & Finishing

Learn about rotary drum machines, paddle machines, extraction, continuous scour and bleach, dyeing, finishing, and boarding.

Double Knit

Double Knits

Learn about double knits, including two sets of needles, rib gaiting, and interlock gaiting.

Sock Inspection & Packaging

Learn about inspection and packaging.

Mechanical Finishing

Mechanical Finishing

The final appearance and serviceability of fabric may be achieved through mechanical means, such as drying, sanding, napping, shearing, and more.

Sock Testing

Learn about fit, stretch, abrasion resistance, pilling, strength, crocking, lightfastness, and colorfastness.

U.S. Cut & Sew Manufacturers

Cotton Cut & Sew Manufacturers

Made in the USA. Here are a few options of cut and sew manufacturers for cotton in the United States.

Chemical Finishing

Chemical Finishing

Chemical finishing can affect many qualities of a fabric or garment, through the use of softeners, hand builders, fluorochemicals, resin, and enzymes.

Sourcing the Best Cotton Products: Understanding & Overcoming Pilling

Garment Durability: Pilling

One of the most common complaints concerning product aesthetics and performance is that of pilling.


Quality Testing: Product Sampling & Conditioning

Learn about quality testing: product sampling and conditioning.


Understanding & Overcoming Skewing

Learn to improve the performance of your quality goods as textile expert Don Bailey delves into key textile techniques.

Cationic Cotton

Cationic Cotton

Cationic cotton can transform your dyeing routine into an environmentally responsible and efficient process.


Consumers Speak: Apparel Changes that Impact Satisfaction

Consumer reviews impact purchases. Learn how apparel performance issues and fabrication changes can impact shopper loyalty to brands and retailers.

qa-stain-release yellow coffee mug spill

Quality Assurance: Stains

Oil and stain resistance are desirable attributes of fabrics—in the garments we wear to protect us, well, against ourselves!


Quality Assurance: Water Testing

Learn about the absorption of liquid and its movement in relation to fabric.


Quality Assurance: Stretch & Growth

The attribute of fabric stretch has associated properties that are as important as the stretch characteristic itself.

Basic Functions of the Weaving Loom

Basic Functions of the Weaving Loom

Learn about basic functions of the weaving loom—from shedding and filling insertion to beat-up and warp control.


Quality Assurance: Flammability

Learn about the three flammability standards pertinent to apparel and children’s sleepwear.


Quality Assurance: Comfort

Learn the fundamental aspects of fabric comfort, from air permeability to drying.