Sourcing & Manufacturing

Basics of Yarn Manufacturing

Learn about the basics of yarn manufacturing including its history and fiber selection.

Independent Testing Laboratories

To support your product development process, Cotton Incorporated has compiled a list of potential independent testing laboratories.

Technical Guide

This technical guide on cotton for nonwovens covers agricultural production, cotton properties and preparation, and cotton morphology and chemistry.

Natural vs. Synthetic Fibers

Whether you work in agriculture, fashion or manufacturing, knowing cotton fiber is the right choice isn’t always enough. Get the science.

E-Book: Classification & Tariff Engineering

Download the full e-book, Customs and International Trade Strategy: Classification & Tariff Engineering.

E-Book: Free Trade Agreement Programs

Download the full e-book, Free Trade Agreement Programs.

Sourcing Cotton

Understand vital information about cotton, trade in cotton and production, and manufacturing practices that can affect cotton sourcing & traceability.

Cotton Fiber Development & Maturation

Cotton plant development occurs in specific stages of reproductive growth and cotton plant development must be optimized for ideal fiber production.

Cotton Fiber Harvesting & Ginning

The first step in cotton processing is harvesting, and, for the farmers, it’s an important and personal process.

Cotton Fiber Qualities & Evaluation

Learn about the combination of instrument evaluations and skilled cotton classer assessments used to determine cotton fiber properties.

Cotton Classification

The United States classes 100% of its cotton bales. Learn more about USDA cotton classification.

Engineered Fiber Selection® Software

Cotton buyers and sellers improve cotton logistics, evaluation, optimization, and profitability with the EFS® System Suite of software.

History of Denim

From the origin of the word "jeans" to its revolution in the fashion industry to where it gets its color, learn more about the history of denim.

Made in the USA: Knit Fabric Mills

Looking for your link in knit fabric? Here are a few options of knit cotton fabric mills in the USA.

Dyeing Basics

Learn about color, basic principles, fiber reactive dyes, direct dyes, vat dyes, sulfur dyes, and pigments.

Made in the USA: Woven Fabric Mills

Looking for your link in woven fabric? Here are a few options of woven cotton fabric mills in the USA.

Made in the USA: Yarn Spinners

Looking for your link in yarn spinning or dyeing? Here are a few options of cotton yarn spinners and dyers in the USA.

Made in the USA: Printers

Looking for your link in printing? Here are a few options for digital and conventional printers in the USA.

Dyeing Preparation

Learn about dyeing preparation, including scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, and rinsing/neutralizing.

Marketing Resources

Discover why cotton is the right choice for various nonwoven markets and products.

Sourcing Directories

Connect with suppliers of various types of cotton fiber, nonwoven materials, or converted nonwoven products.


Watch the recordings of recent webinars on the hypoallergenic properties of cotton and the baby care market.

Printing Overview

Get an overview of the art of printing.

Made in the USA: Dyers & Finishers

Looking for your link in dyeing and finishing? Here are a few options of commission dyers and finishers for cotton in the USA.

Advances in Sustainable Dyeing

Discover new ways to reduce water, energy, and chemicals during the dyeing process.

How Fiber Quality Impacts Your End Product

In this webinar, we will walk you through key aspects of choosing the right cotton fiber for your end product.

Yarn Spinning: Fiber Opening & Cleaning

Learn about the opening and cleaning processes of yarn manufacturing.

Denim Manufacturing:
Yarn Processes

How denim looks and feels depends greatly on its yarn. Size, twist direction, ring or open-end spinning—all play a role in the final look.

Denim Manufacturing:
Weaving Processes

Learn about drawing-in and warp tying, yarn flow, and basic weaving motions.

Yarn Spinning: Batt Formation & Fiber Carding

Learn about batt formation and the carding process of yarn manufacturing.

Yarn Spinning: Fiber Preparation

Learn about drawing, combing, and roving.

Yarn Spinning Processes

Learn about the three different methods for spinning: ring spinning, rotor spinning, and air-jet spinning.

Yarn Spinning: Numbering

Learn about yarn numbering.

Yarn Spinning: Yarn Twist, & Ply

Learn about yarn numbering, yarn twist types, and yarn ply.

Woven Basics

Discover why wovens are unique. Learn about warping, slashing, drawing-in, and tying-in.

Woven Fabric Designs

Learn about basic weave constructions such as plain weaves, twill weaves, satin weaves, and more.

Designing Wovens

Learn about designing wovens, including defining the product, technical design, and design implications.

Types of Weaves

Learn about “Plain Weaves”, “Twill Weaves”, and “Satin Weaves.”

Sweater Design

Learn about sweater design, including construction, color consideration, product target, and computer-aided design.

Sweater Manufacturing Basics

Learn about cut and sew, panel knitting, full fashion, and knit-to-wear garments.

Sweater Manufacturing: Dyeing & Finishing

Learn about dyeing, finishing, and steaming/shaping garments.

History of Garment Manufacturing

Learn about the history of garment manufacturing.

Garment Components

Learn about thread, closures, zippers, buttons, findings, trim, and shaping materials.

Garment Construction

Learn about seams and stitches, t-shirt construction, jean construction, and dress-shirt construction.

Shrinkage Testing

Learn about shrinkage testing.

Knit Fabric Shrinkage

Learn about the fundamentals of knit fabric shrinkage including knitting parameters, dyeing and finishing parameters, and chemical finishing.

Shrinkage Basics

Learn about the basics of shrinkage.

Garment Markers, Spreading, & Cutting

Learn about pattern engineering, marker making, and cutting methods.

Quality Control

Learn about fabric quality and systems and inspection.

History of Sock Manufacturing

Learn about the history of sock manufacturing.

Printing Fundamentals

Learn about Printing Fundamentals, from basics to afterwashing.

Types of Printing

Learn about everything from flat-bed screen printing to digital inkjet printing.

Understanding & Overcoming Shrinkage

Controlling shrinkage of textile and apparel products impacts the design and production planning in manufacturing or sourcing products.

Sock Knitting Basics

Learn about sock knitting basics, including machine components, the knitting cylinder, the knitting needle cycle, and machine types.

Special Techniques in Printing

Learn about special printing techniques, including resist printing, discharge printing, and transfer printing.

Printing Technique Comparison

Explore the comparisons between rotary printing, cool transfer printing, and digital printing.

Quality Testing: Care & Appearance

Learn about quality testing: appearance, colorfastness, lightfastness, rating procedures, and dimensional stability.

Knit Basics

Learn about the basics of knit.

Quality Testing: Durability

Learn about quality testing: strength, abrasion resistance, and pilling.

Quality Testing: Construction

Learn about quality testing: fiber, yarn, and fabric.

Denim Manufacturing Basics

Learn about the process flow for denim manufacturing, typical denim construction, weaves, and weights, and non-conventional denim fabrics.

Designing Knits

Learn about designing knits, including defining the product, technical design, and fabric construction.

Sock Components

Learn about sock components, including welt formation, heel pocket formation, cushioning, reinforcement, patterning, and yarn for socks.

Single Knits

Learn about the knitting machine, needle action, and knit, tuck, and float stitches.

Sock Stitch Formations

Learn about stitch counts and types of stitches.

Denim Garment Construction

Learn about spreading, cutting, and sewing denim garments.

Sock Dyeing & Finishing

Learn about rotary drum machines, paddle machines, extraction, continuous scour and bleach, dyeing, finishing, and boarding.

Double Knits

Learn about double knits, including two sets of needles, rib gaiting, and interlock gaiting.

Sock Inspection & Packaging

Learn about inspection and packaging.

Finishing Preparation

Learn about scouring, bleaching, mercerizing, and final steps in finishing.

Mechanical Finishing

Learn about mechanical finishing, including drying, compaction, calendering, and sanding, napping, and shearing.

Sock Testing

Learn about fit, stretch, abrasion resistance, pilling, strength, crocking, lightfastness, and colorfastness.

Made in the USA: Cut & Sew Manufacturers

Looking for your link in cut and sew manufacturing? Here are a few options of cut and sew manufacturers for cotton in the USA.

Denim Basic & Premium Finishing

Learn about the basic process and premium finish process of denim garment finishing.

Denim Finishing Machinery

Learn about denim garment finishing machinery, including rotary machines, extraction, tumble drying, and pressing.

Chemical Finishing

Learn about softeners and builders, functional chemistry, and application systems.

Denim Wet Finishing

Learn about denim wet finishing, including desizing/washing, abrasive color loss, color discharge, and chemical finishing.

Denim Dry Finishing

Learn about denim dry finishing, including sanding, brushing, laser, whiskering, and special effects.

Sustainable Denim Processing

Brands and consumers are looking for more sustainable options without sacrificing the look and feel that consumers love about their favorite jeans.

Quality Testing: Product Sampling & Conditioning

Learn about quality testing: product sampling and conditioning.

Understanding & Overcoming Skewing

Learn to improve the performance of your quality goods as textile expert Don Bailey delves into key textile techniques.

Understanding & Overcoming Pilling

One of the most common complaints concerning product aesthetics and performance is that of pilling.

Cationic Cotton

Cationic cotton can transform your dyeing routine into an environmentally responsible and efficient process.

Consumers Speak: Apparel Changes that Impact Satisfaction

Consumer reviews impact purchases. Learn how apparel performance issues and fabrication changes can impact shopper loyalty to brands and retailers.

Quality Assurance: Stains

Oil and stain resistance are desirable attributes of fabrics—in the garments we wear to protect us, well, against ourselves!

Quality Assurance: Water Testing

Learn about the absorption of liquid and its movement in relation to fabric.

Quality Assurance: Stretch & Growth

The attribute of fabric stretch has associated properties that are as important as the stretch characteristic itself.

Basic Functions of the Weaving Loom

Learn about basic functions of the weaving loom, including shedding, filling insertion, beat-up, warp control.

Quality Assurance: Flammability

Learn about the three flammability standards pertinent to apparel and children’s sleepwear.

Quality Assurance: Comfort

Learn the fundamental aspects of fabric comfort, from air permeability to drying.